Analysis of the article: “For a Characterization Of Brazilian Social Psychology” owner Leonardo Pinto de Almeida, University Federal Fluminense, made by Harley Pacheco de Sousa psychologist. 2013
Social psychology has emerged on U.S. soil and behaviorism became hegemonic providing an understanding of individualizing social understanding that the psychology of individuals serve to understand the company.
The Gestalt psychology with the rise of Hitler developed a cognitive psychology experimentalist and a-historical that distinguishes an individual and society, then social psychology became the study of human interactions focused on attitudes and values ​​that could be positive or negative, and focus the need to understand the functioning capitalist groups as productivity device.
This perspective has grown because of the large study conducted by the American and European universities need to be rebuilt and Japanese, but it did not take long because the Latin American psychologists began to challenge this perspective, it claimed that the American model did not fit with the reality of their countries. The echo was in Brazil was the sociological social psychology that prevailed commitment to population.
So today in Brazil we see the influence of critical theory, representation theory and social institutions are distinguished by psychological and sociological. The social psychology sociological argument with the psychological perspective, then, questionaremos policy implications, methodological and practical reasons our history.
Before installing this perspective in the United States we see the emergence of comparative social psychology, based on an evolutionary perspective in the Handbook of Social Psychology, Murchison 1935.
This reveals a sociological perspective by thinking of an analytic phenomena phylogenetic history and social history, considering the social and multidisciplinary methodology of analysis of social phenomena and facts. (Farr 1998 cited by the author). But over the course of wars won by behaviorism account of the decline of evolutionism and the separation of disciplines. It is interesting to note that the separation between subject and individual was conceptualized as a tool groups focusing on productivity.
The victory against behaviorism and comparative psychology against functionalism defeated the historical perspective and emerged as a ahistorical which is based on finding the general laws that govern social interactions, then the view that research serve to debug the possible variables through the “ex post facto” and experimental hegemonic made up.
F. H. Allport (1924) cited by the author based psychology and behavioral science and experimental science would not mind as to Wundt, but a natural science, therefore, must rely on analytical forms derived from naturalism.
Foucault (1999) cited by the author’s in di behaviorist, cognitivist and a willingness to seek social nature of man and purified essences through experiments that derive their history. Only later comes the understanding of man as a historical subjectivity as opposed to naturalized psychologies by declaring themselves stemmed from the natural sciences.
Fo Wundt base who gave the two perspectives, both the natural sciences as the spirits of this dichotomy underlies two perspectives with different objects and methods, since a trial was through introspection and an analysis of other religions, myths and cultural products, Wundt separated because he believed that the psyche in its deepest forms could not be subjected to the experiments, but was heavily criticized by Wundt and Ebbinghaus Külpe. (Schultz and Schultz 2001 cited by the author).
The criticisms positivists led to forget the psychology of people, the repudiation of Wundt positivism allowed the strengthening of a positivist social perspective experimentalist pointing individualisation that developed with behaviorism and the exchange of philosophy of biology. (Farr 1998 cited by the author).
This way of seeing is a psychological form that individualizes and rebate analysis on the social aspect of behavior. The cognitive social psychology although in different theoretical and political consequences has also methodological in its individualization of social context.
Hitler had importance for the development of North American social psychology, as did his hatred European intellectuals migrate to the United States of America. From this emerged the confrontation between behaviorism and positivism analyze the behavior and phenomenological gestalt. (1979 Cartwright cited by the author). Both the individualized social theories, both are defined as the study of social interactions that seek to relate factors or variables endowed with stability, hence the assertion Aroldo Rodrigues that psychology is a social science by seeking neutral stable social relationships. (Bock, Ferreira Furtado Goncalves and 2007 cited by the author).
The analysis of the interaction partners is based on the attempt to build theoretical laws about behavior or perception, focusing on the idea that explains the psychology of the individual to society. The American psychology was concerned with social concerns outlined in order to understand Nazism as examining the role of aggression, attitudes and so on. (Reich and Adcock 1976, Rodrigues 1979 cited by the author).
According to Helmut Kruger (1986) cited by the author to American social psychology has some respects: individualism and concern in formulating psychological laws relating to the individual in his social relations, experimentalism, the microteorização, ethnocentrism which is prevalent in American theories in other cultures, cognitivism because of the prevalence of this perspective on behaviorism and psychoanalysis and historicism-the search due to the theoretical formulation of laws generalized to the behavior of the individual in society which sums up the individual and their relationship with the company withdrawing its component maker.
The American social psychology bases its analysis on groups with a view to better adapt individuals seeking increased productivity as a result of control. This is a way of naturalizing social.
Unlike Allport in his analysis positivist, Moscovici (2003) cited by the author as Durkheim points forerunner of social psychology and shows the distinction between individual and collective representations, it resembles the proposal of Wundt. (Moscovici 2003 cited by the author).
The individual would object representations of collective psychology and sociology. Moscovici is interested in the dynamics of their representations in building society and identities based on these representations. For Moscovici representations arise from two processes, anchoring and objectification. Anchoring the unknown fit into pre-existing categories, it is synonymous with classification and designation. (Sá 2002 cited by the author). Objectification is based on the construction of naturalized images that take the place of the unknown and so explain. This theory was used by many Latinos in their struggles for social psychology more compromised with problems of their respective countries. Your use search educate individuals who are affected ideologies.
Social relations and ideologies differ, since social relations are dynamic and static ideologies are similar, but the ideology is a symbolic way to service relations of domination, so not all social relationships are ideological, we must check whether or not it is based a relationship of domination. (Guareschi 2004 cited by the author).
We see clearly how remarkable cultural colonization suffered by the peoples of our continent and the social psychology was no different. (Pereira de Sá 2007 cited by the author).
We see in Brazil a new attitude from the emergence of social psychology – History of Ramos and Bricquet and strengthening the North American perspective because of the formation of Brazilian psychologists in the United States
Review from England and France have created crises in American model implemented in Brazil during the dictatorship. Social psychology Latin was the fiercest criticism of the American model, because this model does not match imported our reality. (Lane 1982 cited by the author).
Social psychology should latina very dictatorial figures who had in its borders, since both the repression of North American hegemony as the repression of ditaturas imposed valuing person. This social psychology had as influences striking Silvia Lane. While social psychology was based on a naturalistic perspective, neutral experimental social psychology Brazilian was based on the method of dialectical materialism.
Guareschi (2004) argues that the basic concept of social psychology would be the concept of relationship. This statement reveals a contrast to American social psychology that seeks universal values ​​that would govern human interactions. The universal values ​​are on the side of naturalizations that support certain power relations.
According Guareschi (2004) cited by the author, the man’s history and its relationship to build. The man is a product and producer of its history. Lane (1981) shows that the relationship between man and the world is given by the symbolic mediation of language, but when the word has meaning only becomes naturalized and weapon power associated with forms of domination.
There is also the theory of institutions based on Foucault, Deleuze, Guattari and author of institutional analysis that focus on the resurgence of the truth established in our institutions. These truths intermeiam human relations. We note that the major problem for these theories is related to the intensification of truths and naturalizations of behavior displayed within both these institutions that mediate our relations as the institutions that govern our behavior through guidelines.
Foucault thinks that there is no general truths, trans – human history because the facts, acts or words not from a nature, that would be a reason of origin, or reflects an object to which they refer. (Foucault cited by Veyne 2008 cited by the author 2012).
Through his research Foucault thought about the relationships between institutions and ways of life produced by them. The problem of power and institutions is established in freezing creative potential of the word. Thus this sociological perspective of social psychology also strongly criticizes the notion of neutrality.
We observed that all social psychologies criticism include critical social psychology by American are characterized by the analysis of relations and not by a search of the essence and laws found in the psychological perspectives. The Brazilian social psychologies show political commitment, focusing on the critique of positivism, the experimental asepsis, a-historical and neutrality of the researcher

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